Law Review Articles / Treatises / Other Writings

  1. Vinita Andrapalliyal, The CPS Took My Baby Away: Threats to Immigrant Parental Rights and a Proposed Federal Solution, 7 Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev. 173 (Winter 2013), available at

  2. Douglas J. Besharov, Terminating Parental Rights: The Indigent Parent's Right to Counsel after Lassiter v. North Carolina, 15 Fam. L.Q. 205 (1981-1982), available at

  3. Comment: The Indigent Parent's Right to Appointed Counsel in Actions to Terminate Parental Rights, 43 U. Cin. L. Rev. 635 (1974).

  4. Judge Leonard Edwards, Improving Juvenile Dependency Courts, Juv. and Fam. Ct. J. (1997), available at

  5. Judge Leonard Edwards, Engaging Fathers in the Child Protection Process: The Judicial Role, Juv. and Fam. Ct. J. (2009), available at

  6. Judge Leonard Edwards, Representation of Parents and Children in Abuse and Neglect Cases: The Importance of Early Appointment, Juvenile and Family Court Journal. 63(2) (Spring 2012), available at

  7. Linda Elrod, Child Custody Practice and Procedure Database, Child Custody Prac. & Proc. § 12:4 (updated October 2009).

  8. Barbara Glesner Fines, Almost Pro-BonoJudicial Appointments of Attorneys in Juvenile and Child Dependency Actions, 72 UMKC L. Rev. 337 (2003), available at

  9. Erik J. Foley, No Money, No Lawyer - No Children: The Right to Counsel for Indigent Defendants in Nevada Termination of Parental Rights Proceedings, 16 Nev. L.J. 313 (2016), available at

  10. Cynthia Godsoe, All in the Family: Towards a New Representational Model for Parents and Children, 24 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 303 (Spring 2011).

  11. Martin Guggenheim and Susan Jacobs, A New National Movement in Parent Representation, 47 Clearinghouse Rev. J. of Poverty L. and Pol'y 35 (May-June 2013), available with subscription at

  12. Note: Child Neglect: Due Process for the Parent, 70 Columbia Law Review 465 (1970).

  13. Patricia C. Kussmann, Annotation, Right of Indigent Parent to Appointed Counsel in Proceeding for Involuntary Termination of Parental Rights, 92 A.L.R.5th 379 (2001).

  14. William Wesley Patton, It Matters Not What Is But What Might Have Been: The Standard of Appellate Review for Denial of Counsel in Child Dependency and Parental Severance Trials, 12 Whittier L. Rev. 537 (1991).

  15. William Wesley Patton, Standards of Appellate Review for Denial of Counsel and Ineffective Assistance of Counsel in Child Protection and Parental Severance Trials, 27 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 195 (1996).

  16. Arjun Rangarajan, Civil Gideon, Removal Proceedings, and Parental Rights Termination: A Curious Intersection, 8 DePaul J. for Soc. Just. 387 (Spring 2015). 

  17. Vivek Sankaran, No Harm, No Foul? Why Harmless Error Analysis Should Not Be Used To Review Wrongful Denials Of Counsel To Parents In Child Welfare Cases, 63 S.C. L. Rev. 13 (Autumn 2011).

  18. Vivek S. Sankaran, Protecting a Parent's Right to Counsel in Child Welfare Cases, ABA Child Law Practice (2009), available at

  19. Julie P. Shelton, Indigents Have No Right To Appointed Counsel In Proceedings To Terminate Parental Rights - Lassiter v. Department of Social Services, 31 Depaul L.J. 152 (Fall 1981), available at

  20. Michele Struffolino, Taking Limited Representation to the Limits: The Efficacy of Using Unbundled Legal Services in Domestic-Relations Matters Involving Litigation, 2 St. Mary's J. Legal Mal. & Ethics 166 (2012).

  21. Elizabeth Thornton and Betsy Gwin, High-Quality Legal Representation for Parents in Child Welfare Cases Results in Improved Outcomes for Families and Potential Cost Savings, Family Law Quarterly, Vol. 46 Issue 1, p139-154 (Spring 2012), available at

  22. Nadine Vasser, The Indigent Parent's Right to Counsel in Termination of Parental Rights Proceedings, 16 J. Contemp. Legal Issues 329 (2005).

  23. Elizabeth Mills Viney, The Right to Counsel in Parental Rights Termination Cases: How a Clear and Consistent Legal Standard Would Better Protect Indigent Families, 63 SMU L. Rev. 1403 (2010).

  24. Jessica Dixon Weaver, Overstepping Ethical Boundaries?  Limitations on State Efforts to Provide Access to Justice in Family Courts, 82 Fordham L. Rev. 2705 (2014), available at

  25. Amie K. Wilcox, Civil Right To Counsel For Indigent Parents In Contested Adoptions: An Argument For Due Process And Equal Protection When Parental Rights Are Terminated In Private Civil Actions, 56-SUM Ark. Law. 22 (2021), available at  

  26. Samantha Zuehlke, Minnesota’s System of Justice by Geography in Child Protection Proceedings: Base Issues in Minnesota’s Parental Representation Scheme and in the Discretionary Appointment of Counsel Under Section 260C.163, 47 Mitchell Hamline L. Rev. (2021), available at