Law Review Articles / Treatises / Other Writings

  1. Rebecca A. Albrecht, et al., Judicial Techniques for Cases Involving Self-Represented Litigants, 42 Judges' J. 16 (2003), available at

  2. Barrie Althoff, Ethics and the Law: Ethical Considerations for Lawyers and Judges When Dealing with Unrepresented Persons, Washington State Bar News (Jan. 2000), available at

  3. Deborah J. Cantrell, Justice for Interests of the Poor: The Problem of Navigating the System without Counsel, 70 Fordham L. Rev. 1573 (2002), available at

  4. Conference of State Court Administrators, Position Paper on Self-Represented Litigation (Aug. 2000), available at

  5. Dan Conley, O. Thomas Armstrong, and Jeffrey O. Davis, with Nathan R. Mathews, Judges' Views of Pro Se Litigants' Effect on Courts, 40 Clearinghouse Rev. J. of Poverty L. and Pol'y 228 (2006).

  6. Russell Engler, And Justice for All—Including the Unrepresented Poor: Revisiting the Roles of the Judges, Mediators and Clerks, 67 Fordham L. Rev. 1987 (1999), available at

  7. Russell Engler, Out of Sight and Out of Line: The Need for Regulations of Lawyers' Negotiations with Unrepresented Poor Persons, 85 Cal. L. Rev. 79 (1997), available at

  8. Erica L. Fox, Alone in the Hallway: Challenges to Effective Self-Representation in Negotiation, 1 Harv. Negot. L. Rev. 85 (1996).

  9. Jona Goldschmidt, How are Courts Handling Pro Se Litigants? Litigation by People Who Represent Themselves is a Growing Phenomenon That Presents a Variety of Challenges to Court Staff and Judges, 82 Judicature 13 (1998).

  10. Jona Goldschmidt, The Pro Se Litigant's Struggle for Access to Justice: Meeting the Challenge of Bench and Bar Resistance, 40 Fam. Ct. Rev. 36 (2002), available at

  11. Stephan Landsman, Nothing for Something? Denying Access to Legal Assistance to Those Compelled to Participate in ADR Proceedings, 37 Fordham Urb. L.J. 273 (2010), available at

  12. Bruce D. Sales, Connie J. Beck, & Richard K. Haan, Is Self-Representation a Reasonable Alternative to Attorney Representation in Divorce Cases?, 37 St. Louis U. L.J. 553 (1993).

  13. Richard Zorza, Discrete Task Representation, Ethics, and the Big Picture: Toward a New Jurisprudence, 40 Fam. Ct. Rev. 19 (2002), available for purchase at

  14. Richard Zorza, The Disconnect Between the Requirements of Judicial Neutrality and Those of the Appearance of Neutrality When Parties Appear Pro Se: Causes, Solutions, Recommendations, and Implications, 17 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 423 (2004), available for purchase at