Law Review Articles / Treatises / Other Writings

  1. Laura Abel and Risa Kaufman, Preserving Aliens' and Migrant Workers' Access to Civil Legal Services: Constitutional and Policy Considerations, 5 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 491 (2003), available at

  2. Eleanor Acer, et al. No Deportation Without Representation: The Right to Appointed Counsel in the Immigration Context, Immigration Briefings (Oct. 2005).

  3. Matt Adams, Advancing the "Right" to Counsel in Removal Proceedings, 9 Seattle J. for Soc. Just. 169 (Fall/Winter 2010), available at

  4. Vinita Andrapalliyal, The CPS Took My Baby Away: Threats to Immigrant Parental Rights and a Proposed Federal Solution, 7 Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev. 173 (Winter 2013), available at

  5. Robert Black, Due Process and Deportation—Is There a Right to Assigned Counsel?, 8 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 289 (1975).

  6. Andrew Bramante, Ending Indefinite Detention of Non-Citizens, 61 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 933 (Spring 2011).

  7. Cassandra Burke Robertson, Litigating Citizenship, 73 Vand. L. Rev. 757 (Apr. 2020), available at

  8. Michael Churgin, An Essay on Legal Representation of Non-Citizens in Detention, 5 Intercultural Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 167 (2010), available at

  9. Alice Clapman, Petty Offenses, Drastic Consequences: Toward A Sixth Amendment Right To Counsel For Noncitizen Defendants Facing Deportation, 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 585 (Dec. 2011).

  10. LaJuana Davis, Reconsidering Remedies for Ensuring Competent Representation in Removal Proceedings, 58 Drake L. Rev. 123 (2009).

  11. Shane T. Devins, Using the Language of Turner v. Rogers to Advocate for a Right to Counsel in Immigration Removal Proceedings, 46 J. Marshall L. Rev. 893 (Spring 2013), available at

  12. Ingrid Eagly, Gideon's Migration, 122 Yale L.J. 2282 (June 2013), available at

  13. Duncan Fulton, Emergence Of A Deportation Gideon?: The Impact Of Padilla v. Kentucky On Right To Counsel Jurisprudence, 86 Tul. L. Rev. 219 (Nov. 2011).

  14. Mark Fennell, Preserving Process in the Wake of Policy: The Need for Appointed Counsel in Immigration Removal Proceedings, 23 Notre Dame J.L. Ethics & Pub. Pol'y 261 (2009).

  15. Miguel A. Gradilla, Making Rights Real: Effectuating the Due Process Rights of Particularly Vulnerable Immigrants in Removal Proceedings Through Administrative Mechanisms, 4 Colum. J. Race & L. 225 (2014), available at

  16. William Haney, Deportation and the Right to Counsel, 11 Harv. Int'l L.J. 177 (1970).

  17. Harvard Law Review Association, Representation in Removal Proceedings, 126 Harv. L. Rev. 1658 (April 2013).

  18. Kevin Johnson, An Immigration Gideon for Lawful Permanent Residents, 122 Yale L.J. 2394 (June 2013), available at

  19. Michael Kaufman, Detention, Due Process, and the Right to Counsel in Removal Proceedings¸ 4 Stan. J. Civ. Rts. & Civ. Liberties 113 (2008).

  20. Robert A. Katzmann, The Legal Profession and the Unmet Needs of the Immigrant Poor, 21 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 3 (Winter 2008), available at

  21. Donald Kerwin, Revisiting the Need for Appointed Counsel, 4 Migration Policy Institute Insight 1 (2005), available at

  22. Peter Markowitz, Deportation is Different, 13 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 1299 (June 2011).

  23. Amanda Masters, Case Comment, Is Procedural Due Process in a Remote Processing Center a Contradiction in Terms?  Gandarillas-Zambrana v. Board of Immigration Appeals, 57 Ohio St. L.J. 999 (1996).

  24. Matthew S. Mulqueen, Access to Counsel in Immigration Proceedings: Appointment of Counsel for Indigent and Minor Respondents Draws Support, Litigation News Vol. 44, No. 2 (Winter 2019), available at

  25. Ramanujan Nadadur, Beyond "Crimigration" and the Civil-Criminal Dichotomy – Applying Mathews v. Eldridge in the Immigration Context, 16 Yale Hum. Rts. & Dev. L.J. 141 (2013).

  26. Kara A. Naseef, How to Decrease the Immigration Backlog: Expand Representation and End Unnecessary Detention, 52 U. Mich. J. L. Reform 771 (2019), available at

  27. National Immigration Project of the National Lawyers Guild, Immigration Law and Defense 3d Database, Updated March 2010, Chapter 7: The Deportation Hearing, 1 Immigr. Law and Defense § 7:57 (2010). 

  28. Mark Noferi, Cascading Constitutional Deprivation: The Right to Appointed Counsel for Immigrants Pending Removal Proceedings, 18 Mich. J. Race & L. 63 (Fall 2012), available at

  29. Mark Noferi, Making Civil Immigration Detention "Civil," and Examining the Emerging U.S. Civil Detention Paradigm, 27 J. Civ. rts. & Econ. Dev. 533 (Winter 2014), available at

  30. Christopher Nugent & Steven Schulman, A New Era in the Legal Treatment of Alien Children: The Homeland Security and Child Status Protection Acts, 80 Interpreter Releases 233-40 (Feb. 19, 2003).

  31. Arjun Rangarajan, Civil Gideon, Removal Proceedings, and Parental Rights Termination: A Curious Intersection, 8 DePaul J. for Soc. Just. 387 (Spring 2015). 

  32. Carla Reyes, Access to Counsel in Removal Proceedings: A Case Study for Exploring Legal and Societal Imperative to Expand the Civil Right to Counsel, 17 U.D.C. L.R. 131 (Spring 2014), available at

  33. David Robertson, An Opportunity to be Heard: The Right to Counsel in Deportation Proceedings, 63 Wash. L. Rev. 1019 (1988).

  34. Renata Robertson, The Right to Counsel in Removal Proceedings: An End to Wrongful Deportation of U.S. Citizens, 15 Scholar: St. Mary's L. Rev. & Soc. Just. 567 (2013).

  35. Andrew Schoenholtz and Hamutal Bernstein, Improving Immigration Adjudications Through Competent Counsel, 21 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 55 (2008).

  36. Ernest H. Schopler, Comment note — Right to Assistance by Counsel in Administrative Proceedings, 33 A.L.R.3d 229 (1970). 

  37. Careen Shannon, Immigration Is Different: Why Congress Should Guarantee Access to Counsel In All Immigration Matters, 17 U.D.C. L.R. 165 (Spring 2014), available at

  38. Margaret H. Taylor, Promoting Legal Representation for Detained Aliens: Litigation and Administrative Reform, 29 Conn. L. Rev. 1647 (Summer 1997).

  39. Anne Traum, Constitutionalizing Immigration Law on Its Own Path, 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 491 (Dec. 2011).

  40. Beth Werlin, Renewing the Call: Immigrants' Right to Appointed Counsel in Deportation Proceedings, 20 B.C. Third World L.J. 393 (2000), available at