Reports / Studies

  1. All of the state-specific legal aid cost/benefit studies and reports can be found on the ABA SCLAID page devoted to such reports.

  2. Also, a collection of summaries of various studies can be found at the website of the Justice in Government Project Toolkit.

  3. ABA Coalition for Justice, Report on the Survey of Judges on the Impact of the Economic Downturn on Representation in the Courts (July 12, 2010), available at

  4. ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services, Report (2016), available at

  5. Laura Abel and Susan Vignola, Economic and Other Benefits Associated with the Provision of Civil Legal Aid, 9 Seattle J. for Soc. Just. 139 (Fall/Winter 2010) available at

  6. Laura Abel, Evidence-Based Access to Justice, 13 U. Pa. J. Law & Soc. Change 295 (2010) available at

  7. Laura Abel, Pressing Questions Encountered by the Access to Justice and Civil Right to Counsel Movements (July 7, 2006) (on file with the National Coalition for a Civil Right to Counsel).

  8. Laura K. Abel, Toward a Right to Counsel in Civil Cases in NY State: A Report of the NY State Bar Ass'n., 25 Touro L. Rev. 31 (2010), available at

  9. American Academy for Arts and Sciences, Civil Justice for All: A Report and Recommendations from the Making Justice Accessible Initiative (2020), available at

  10. Naomi Biden, Marla Spindel and Erin Torres, The Civil Gideon: The Case for a Civil RIght to Counsel, D.C. Volunteer Lawyers Project (Jan. 2017), available at

  11. Richard Block and Jack Stieber, The Impact of Attorneys and Arbitrators on Arbitration Awards, 40 Industrial and Labor Relations Review 543 (1987), available with free jstor account at

  12. Boston Bar Association Task Force on Expanding the Civil Right to Counsel, Gideon's New Trumpet: Expanding the Civil Right to Counsel in Massachusetts (Sept. 2008), available at

  13. Center for Community Solutions, Securing Stability: Legal Aid's Lasting Impact (June 2018), available at

  14. Civil Legal Justice Coalition to the PA State Senate Judiciary Committee, Toward Equal Justice for All (April 2014), available at

  15. Consortium on Legal Services and the Public, American Bar Association, Legal Needs and Civil Justice: A Survey of Americans (1994), available at

  16. Robert Echols, State Legal Needs Studies Point to "Justice Gap": Recent Studies Validate Findings of 1993 ABA Study Regarding Lack of Access by Low-Income People, Dialogue at 32 (Summer 2005), available at

  17. Russell Engler, Connecting Self-Representation to Civil Gideon: What Existing Data Reveal about When Counsel is Most Needed, 37 Fordham Urb. L.J. 37 (2010), available at

  18. Kia Franklin, Election '08: A Pro-Civil Justice Presidential Platform, Drum Major Institute for Public Policy, executive summary available at

  19. James Greiner and Cassandra Wolos Pattanayak, Randomized Evaluation in Legal Assistance: What Difference Does Representation (Offer and Actual Use) Make?, 121 Yale L. J. 2118 (2012), available at

  20. John Gross & Jerry Cox, The Cost of Representation Compared to the Cost of Incarceration, 37-Mar Champion 22 (Mar. 2013).

  21. Gillian K. Hadfield, Higher Demand, Lower Supply?: A Comparative Assessment of the Legal Resource Landscape for Ordinary Americans, University of Southern California Law School Law and Economics Working Paper Series (2009), available at

  22. Alan Houseman, Civil Legal Aid in the United States: An Overview of the Program and Developments in 2005, Center for Law and Social Policy (March 2005), available at

  23. Alan W. Houseman, Civil Legal Aid in the United States: An Update for 2013, Center for Law and Social Policy (Nov. 2013), available at

  24. Alan W. Houseman, Civil Legal Aid in the United States: An Update for 2015 (Dec. 2015), available at

  25. Alan Houseman, Civil Legal Aid in the United States: An Update for 2017 (Apr. 2017 ), available at

  26. Alan W. Houseman, Civil Legal Aid in the United States: An Update for 2019, Center for Law and Social Policy (Nov. 2013), available at

  27. Alan W. Houseman & Linda E. Perle, Securing Equal Justice for All: A Brief History of Civil Legal Assistance in the United States, Center for Law and Social Policy (Nov. 2003), available at

  28. Herbert Kritzer, Examining the Real Demand for Legal Services, William Mitchell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 102, (Oct. 2008) available at

  29. Herbert Kritzer, Legal Advocacy: Lawyers and Nonlawyers at Work (University of Michigan Press) (1998).

  30. Legal Services Corporation, Documenting the Justice Gap In America: The Current Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans (Sept. 2009), available at

  31. Legal Services Corporation, The Justice Gap: Measuring the Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans (June 2017), available at

  32. Legal Services Corporation, Documenting the Justice Gap In America: The Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans (April 2022), available at  

  33. Kathryn Grant Madigan, Advocating for a Civil Right to Counsel in New York State, 25 Touro L. Rev. 9 (2009), available at

  34. Maryland Access to Justice Commission, Implementing a Civil Right to Counsel in Maryland (2011), available at

  35. Maryland Task Force to Study Implementing a Right to Counsel in Maryland, Report (Oct. 1, 2014), available at

  36. Minnesota State Bar Association, Civil Gideon Task Force, Access to Justice: Assessing Implementation of Civil Gideon in Minnesota (Dec. 2, 2011), available at

  37. National Center for Access to Justice, Taking Stock of the Civil Legal Aid Movement in 2015: the Year the Pieces Came Together to Increase Access to Justice in the United States (Dec. 31, 2015), available at

  38. National Center for State Courts, Virginia Self-Represented Litigant Study: Outcomes of Civil Cases in General District Court, Juvenile & Domestic Relations Court, and Circuit Court (Dec. 2017), available at

  39. Philadelphia Bar Association, Chancellor's Task Force on Civil Gideon, Reportsavailable at

  40. Rebecca Sandefur, Elements of Professional Expertise: Understanding Relational and Substantive Expertise through Lawyers' Impact, American Sociological Review, vol. 80, 5: pp. 909-933 (Oct. 2015), available for purchase at

  41. Rebecca Sandefur, The Impact of Counsel: An Analysis of Empirical Evidence, Seattle J. for Soc. Just. (Fall/Winter 2010), available at

  42. Ken Smith and Kelly Thayer, Economic Impacts of Legal Aid: Civil Justice for Low-Income People Creates Ripple Effects That Benefit Every Segment of the Communities We Serve, MIE Journal (Fall 2011), available at

  43. Richard Startz and Albert Yoon, Litigant Resources and the Evolution of Legal Precedent, Draft Version (September 8, 2009), available at

  44. Emily S. Taylor Poppe and Jeffrey Rachlinski, Do Lawyers Matter?  The Effect of Legal Representation on Civil Disputes, 43 Pepp. L. Rev. 881 (2016), available at

  45. Stephen Weller & David A. Price, Representing Indigent Parties in Civil Cases: An Analysis of State Practice (Nov 30, 1994), available at

  46. Roselle L. Wissler, Representation in Mediation: What We Know from Empirical Research, 37 Fordham Urb. L. J. 419 (2010) available at