Studies / Reports

  1. Kehinde Akande et al., Keystone Research Ctr. and Penn. Budget and Policy Ctr., Housing Affordability in Pennsylvania During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evictions and Recommendations to Help Families (Apr. 2022).

  2. Julian R. Birnbaum et al., Chicago's Eviction Court: A Tenants' Court of No Resort, 17 Urb. L. Ann. 93 (1979).

  3. Blue Ribbon Citizens’ Comm. on Slum Hous., The Slum Housing Problem in Los Angeles and the Department of Building and Safety (1997).

    1. Donald P. Merrifield and Gary L. Blasi, Slum Conditions Affect All of Us, L.A. Times (Feb. 10, 1999).

  4. Boston Bar Ass'n Task Force on Expanding the Civil Right to Counsel, Gideon's New Trumpet: Expanding the Civil Right to Counsel in Massachusetts (2008).

  5. Boston Bar Ass'n Task Force on Expanding the Civil Right to Counsel, The Importance of Representation in Eviction Cases and Homelessness Prevention (March 2012).

  6. Boston Bar Ass'n, Investing in Fairness, Justice, and Housing Stability: Assessing the Benefits of Full Legal Representation in Eviction Cases in Massachusetts (June 2020). 

  7. Boston Bar Ass'n, Investing in Justice: A Roadmap to Cost-Effective Funding of Civil Legal Aid in Massachusetts (Oct. 2014).

  8. Boulder Cty. Democratic Socialists of America, Hous. Justice Working Group, Eviction in Boulder Colorado: A Critical Imbalance of Power (Jan. 2020).

  9. Cal. Supreme Court Work Group on Homelessness, Final Report to the Judicial Council, Item No. 21-147 (Oct. 22, 2021). [California]

  10. California Sargent Shriver Pilots

  11. Michael T. Cassidy and Janet Currie, Nat’l Bureau of Econ. Research, The Effects of Legal Representation on Tenant Outcomes in Housing Court: Evidence from New York City's Universal Access Program (March 2022).

  12. Child Poverty Action Lab, Dallas Court Observation Project: Summer 2022 Findings.

  13. Robert Collinson et al., Eviction and Poverty in American Cities, Nat'l Bureau of Econ. Research (Aug. 2022; revised July 2023) (studying "the consequences of eviction for tenants using newly linked administrative data from ... Cook County (which includes Chicago) and New York City."; finding that eviction orders increase homelessness and hospital visits, reduce earnings, durable goods consumption, and access to credit for two years).

  14. Columbus, Ohio Tenant Advcocacy Project (TAP)

  15. Ctr. for Social Innovation, Supporting Partnerships for Anti-Racist Communities: Phase One Findings (Mar. 2018). [San Francisco, CA]

  16. Chadha, L.P., Lawyers' Comm. for Better Hous., Time to Move: The Denial of Tenants’ Rights in Chicago’s Eviction Court (1996).

  17. Ctr. for Pub. Health Research, Legal Levers for Health Equity in Housing: Report Series (2019-2020).

  18. Chicago-Kent Coll. Class of 2004 Honors Scholar, No Time for Justice: A Study of Chicago's Eviction Court, Lawyers' Committee for Better Housing (Dec. 2003).

  19. City Life / Vida Urbana, Evictions in Boston: The Disproportionate Effects of Forced Moves on Communities of Color (2020).

  20. City of Boulder, Hous. and Human Servs., 2022 Eviction Prevention and Rental Assistance Services Annual Report.

  21. City of Boulder, 2021 Eviction Prevention and Rental Assistance Services Annual Report.

  22. City of Philadelphia, Right to Counsel Annual Report: FY2022.

  23. Cmty. Found. of Greater Chattanooga, Eviction Prevention Initiative: City of Chattanooga American Rescue Plan Grant (Oct. 2021-Sept. 2023).

  24. Cmty. Training and Res. Ctr. and City-Wide Task Force on Hous. Court, Inc., Housing Court, Evictions, and Homelessness: The Costs and Benefits of Establishing a Right to Counsel (June 1993) [New York City].

  25. Colo. Health Inst., Home Equity: A Vision of Housing Security, Health, and Opportunity (Aug. 2019).

  26. D.C. Access to Justice Comm'n, Delivering Justice: Addressing Civil Legal Needs in the District of Columbia (2019).

  27. D.C. Bar Pub. Serv. Activities Corp. Landlord Tenant Task Force, Final Report (Aug. 1998) (unpublished) (on file with the NCCRC). 

  28. Soledad De Gregorio, et al., USC Sol Price Sch. of Pub. Policy Ctr. for Soc. Innovation, Mixed Methods Evaluation of the Stay Housed LA County Program,  (Apr. 2022) (on file with the NCCRC).

  29. East Bay All. for a Sustainable Econ., Central County Regional Group, and First 5 Contra Costa, The Housing Crisis Hits Home in Concord (2018).

    1. Report Details Growing Housing Crisis in Concord, SF Gate, July 13, 2018.

  30. David Eldridge, The Making of a Courtroom: Landlord-Tenant trials in Philadelphia's Municipal Court, PhD dissertation, Univ. of Penn. Sch. of Soc. Work (2001).

  31. Russell Engler & Craig Bloomgarden, Summary Process Actions in Boston Housing Court: An Empirical Study and Recommendations for Reform (May 1983).

  32. Steve Eppler-Epstein, The Greiner Studies: Randomized Investigation of Legal Aid Outcomes, 46 Clearinghouse Rev. J. of Poverty L. and Pol'y 43 (May-June 2012).

  33. Paula A. Franzese, Abbott Gorin, & David J. Guzik, The Implied Warranty of Habitability Lives - Making Real the Promise of Landlord-Tenant Reform, 69 Rutgers L.R. 1 (Fall 2016).

  34. Nick Gamber et al., An Analysis of the Eviction Diversion Program at the 54-A District Court (2020). [Michigan]

  35. Victor Geminiani at al., Evicted in Hawaii: Lives Hanging in the Balance, Hawaii Appleseed (2018).

  36. Ingrid Gould Ellen et al., Do Lawyers Matter? Early Evidence on Eviction Patterns After the Rollout of Universal Access to Counsel in New York City, Hous. Pol'y Debate (2020).

  37. Brancen Gregory, Open Justice Okla., Legal Representation and Eviction Outcomes in Tulsa County (last visited Aug. 4, 2023).

  38. D. James Greiner et al., How Effective Are Limited Legal Assistance Programs? A Randomized Experiment in a Massachusetts Housing Court (Sept. 1, 2012).

    1. John Pollock, Recent Studies Compare Full Representation to Limited Assistance in Eviction Cases42 Nat'l Hous. L. Bulletin 72 (March 2012).

  39. D. James Greiner et al., The Limits of Unbundled Legal Assistance: A Randomized Study in a Massachusetts District Court and Prospects for the Future, 126 Harv. L. Rev. 901 (Feb. 2013).

    1. John Pollock, Recent Studies Compare Full Representation to Limited Assistance in Eviction Cases, 42 Nat'l Hous. L. Bulletin 72 (March 2012).

  40. Steven Gunn, Eviction Defense for Poor Tenants: Costly Compassion or Justice Served?, 13 Yale L. & Pol'y Rev. 385 (1995).

  41. Alex Guterbock and Stephen Metraux, Evictions and Legal Representation in Delaware - An Overview, Univ. of Del. Ctr. for Cmty. Research & Serv. (Apr. 2020).

  42. Rebecca Hall, Eviction Prevention as Homelessness Prevention: The Need for Access to Legal Representation for Low-Income Tenants, East Bay Cmty. Law Ctr. Berkeley (1991).

  43. Chester Hartman and David Robinson, Eviction: The Hidden Housing Problem, 14, 4 Hous. Pol'y Debate 461 (2003).

  44. Kinsey Hasstedt et al., Enterprise Cmty. Partners and Colorado Futures Ctr., A New Normal: How Eviction Court Filing Data Can Advance a More Stable Housing Ecosystem for all Coloradans (Oct. 2022).

  45. Aubrey Hasvold and Jack Regenbogen, Colo. Coal. for the Homeless and Colo. Ctr. on Law and Policy, Facing Eviction Alone: A Study of Evictions in Denver Colorado 2014-2016 (2017).

  46. Kevin Hengehold, Cincinnati Tenants’ Union, Representation Matters: Legal Representation and Outcomes in Hamilton County Eviction Court (2023).

  47. Michael Hill and Alex Mercer, Participation in Housing Cases: An Examination of Attendance and Representation at County Court Possession Hearings and Rent Assessment Committees, J. Soc. Welfare L. 237 (July 1987).

  48. Kathryn Howell et al., RVA Eviction Lab and Va. Commonwealth Univ. L. Douglas Wilder Sch. of Gov't and Pub. Affairs, Eviction, legal counsel and the courthouse (Nov. 8, 2021). [Virginia]

  49. Aimee Inglis and Dean Preston, Tenants Together, California Evictions are Fast and Frequent (May 2018).

  50. Jane Place Neighborhood Sustainability Initiative, Unequal Burden, Unequal Risk: Households Headed by Black Women Experience Highest Rates of Eviction: Data from Six Months of JPNSI's Eviction Court Monitoring Project (March 2019). [New Orleans, LA]

  51. Elaina Johns-Wolfe, "You are being asked to leave the premises": A Study of Eviction in Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio, 2014-2017 (June 2018).

  52. Junior League of Brooklyn, Court Study Group, Report On A Study of Brooklyn Landlord-Tenant Court, 10 National Clearinghouse for Legal Services 20 (1973).

  53. Kansas City Eviction Project, Evictions in the Courts: An Analysis of 106,000 Cases from 2006-2016 in Jackson County.

  54. Kira Krenichyn and Nicole Shaefer-McDaniel, Results from Three Surveys in New York City Housing Courts (Feb. 2007).

  55. Candace Ladd, State of EvictionsHeartland Ctr. for Jobs and Freedom (2023) [Kansas]. 

  56. Lawyers' Comm. for Better Hous., Opening the Door on Chicago Evictions: Chicago's Ongoing Crisis (May 2019).

  57. Lawyers' Comm. for Better Hous., Opening the Door on Chicago Evictions: Legal aid attorneys make the difference (May 2019).

  58. Lawyers' Comm. for Better Hous., Opening the Door on Chicago Evictions: Most Families Forced Out For Less Than $2,500 Back Rent (May 2019).

  59. Michelle D. Layser et al., Mitigating Housing Instability During a Pandemic, Univ. of Ill. Coll. of L. Legal Studies Research Paper No. 20-15 (forthcoming).

  60. John and Terry Levin Ctr. for Pub. Serv. and Pub. Interest, Stanford Law Sch., San Francisco Right to Civil Counsel Pilot Program Documentation Report (May 2014).

  61. Ellen Liaw, U.C. Dep't of Econ., Manuscript: The Impact of Right to Counsel to the Poor: Evidence from New York City Housing Courts (Aug. 6, 2021).

  62. Maine Affordable Hous. Coalition, Evictions in Maine: An Analysis of Eviction Data as the COVID-19 Pandemic Leads to Increased Rental Housing Instability (Feb. 2021 Update).

  63. Maine Affordable Hous. Coalition, Evictions in Maine: An Analysis of Eviction Data as the COVID-19 Pandemic Leads to Increased Rental Housing Instability (Sept. 2020).

  64. J.S. Mansfield, Judgment Landlord: A Study of Eviction Court in Chicago, Legal Assistance Foundation of Chicago, NLG Chicago, Chicago Council of Lawyers (1978) (book).

  65. Maryland Office of the Attorney Gen. and Access to Justice Comm'n, Confronting the COVID-19 Access to Justice Crisis (Jan. 2021).

  66. Jamila Michener, The Case for a Right to Counsel in Housing CourtData for Progress (July 2020).

  67. Mid-Minnesota Legal Aid, Legal Representation in Evictions - Comparative Study (2018).

  68. Oksana Mironova, Cmty. Serv. Soc'y, Right to Counsel and Stronger Rent Laws Helped Reduce Evictions in 2019 (Feb. 24, 2020). [New York City]

  69. Oksana Mironova, Cmty. Serv. Soc'y, NYC Right to Counsel: First year results and potential for expansion (March 25, 2019). [New York City]

  70. Karl Monsma and Richard Lempert, The Value of Counsel: 20 Years of Representation before a Public Housing Eviction Board, 26 L. & Soc. Rev. 627 (1992). [Hawaii]

  71. Marylin Mosier and Richard A. Soble, Modern Legislation, Metropolitan Court, Miniscule Results: A Study of Detroit's Landlord-Tenant Court, 7 U. Mich. J. of L. Reform 8 (1973).

  72. Nat'l Law Ctr. on Homelessness and Poverty, Housing Not Handcuffs: Ending the Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities (Dec. 2019).

  73. Nat'l Law Ctr. on Homelessness and Poverty, Protect Tenants, Prevent Homelessness (Mar. 2018).

  74. Kyle Nelson, Strategic Actions for a Just Economy (SAJE), A Judicious Investment: Right to Counsel Is a Cost-Effective Way to Solve Los Angeles' Affordability Crisis and Keep Angelenos Housed (Aug. 2023).

  75. New Settlement Apartments’ Cmty. Action for Safe Apartments (CASA) and the Cmty. Dev. Project (CDP), Tipping the Scales: A Report of Tenant Experiences in Bronx Housing Court (March 2013).

  76. New York City OCJ Reports:

  77. N.Y. Cty. Lawyers' Ass'n, New York County Lawyers' Association Report on Right to Counsel in Housing Court (2006).

  78. N.Y. State Dep't of Soc. Servs., The Homelessness Prevention Program: Outcomes and Effectiveness (1990). [New York]

  79. NPC Research, Civil Legal Counsel Projects Program (CLCPP) Evaluation: 2022 Annual Evaluation Report (March 2023). [D.C.]

  80. NPC Research, Report to the California State Legislature for the Sargent Shriver Civil Counsel Act Evaluation (June 2020).

  81. Office of the Deputy Chief Admin. Judge for Justice Initiatives, Self-Represented Litigants in the New York City Family Court and New York City Housing Court (Dec. 2005).

  82. Clare Pastore, Gideon is My Co-Pilot: The Promise of Civil Right to Counsel Pilot Programs, 17 U.D.C. L.R. 75 (Spring 2014), available at

  83. Philliber Research & Evaluation, Equal Justice Works Housing Justice Program Evaluation (Sept. 2021).

  84. Raphael L. Podolsky and Stephen O'Brien, Legal Assistance Res. Ctr. of Conn., Inc.  A Study of Eviction Cases in Hartford: A Follow-up Review of the Hartford Housing Court (1995).

  85. Elliot D. Pollack & Co., Analysis of the Arizona Eviction Process (May 2008) (on file with the NCCRC)

  86. Pub. Counsel and the UCLA Sch. of Law Cmty. Econ. Dev. Clinic, Priced Out, Pushed Out, Locked Out: How Permanent Tenant Protections Can Help Communities Prevent Homelessness and Resist Displacement in Los Angeles County (June 2019).

  87. Pub. Justice Ctr. and the Right to Hous. All., Justice Diverted: How Renters Are Processed in the Baltimore City Rent Court (Dec. 2015).

  88. Pub. Policy Inst., Home Is Where Our Health Is: Policies to Improve the Health of Renters in Milwaukee and Beyond, Community Advocates (Feb. 2020).

  89. Giselle Routhier, Coalition for the Homeless, Family Homelessness in NYC: City and State Must Meet Unprecedented Scale of Crisis With Proven Solutions (Jan. 2017). [New York City]

  90. Memorandum from Atlanta Hous. Comm'n Chair Andy Schneggenburger to Atlanta City Council Members, Reducing Evictions in the City of Atlanta (May 30, 2023).

  91. Heidi Schultheis and Caitlin Rooney, Ctr. for American Progress, A Right to Counsel is a Right to a Fighting Chance (Oct. 2, 2019).

  92. Seattle Women's Comm'n, Losing Home: The Human Cost of Eviction in Seattle (Sept. 2018).

  93. Seedco Pol'y Ctr., Housing Help Program: Homelessness Prevention Pilot Final Report (June 2010) [New York].

  94. Carroll Seron et al., The Impact of Legal Counsel on Outcomes for Poor Tenants in New York City's Housing Court: Results of a Randomized Experiment, 35 L. & Soc'y Rev. 419 (2001).

  95. Jessica Steinberg, In Pursuit of Justice? Case Outcomes and the Delivery of Unbundled Legal Services, 18 Geo. J. Pov. L. & Pol'y. 453 (2011). [California]

    1. John Pollock, Recent Studies Compare Full Representation to Limited Assistance in Eviction Cases42 Nat'l Hous. L. Bulletin 72 (March 2012).

  96. Stout Reports

  97. Wanling Su, Why Protect Renters? Empirical Evidence from New York City (Sept. 2021) (on file with the NCCRC).

  98. Ryan Sullivan, Univ. of Neb. Coll. of Law, Examination of Eviction Filings in Lancaster County, Nebraska, 2019–2021 (May 6, 2022).

  99. Nicole Summers, The Limits of Good Law: A Study of Housing Court Outcomes, U. Chic. L.Rev. (2019). [New York City]

  100. TakeRoot Justice and RTC NYC Coalition, Organizing is Different Now: How the Right to Counsel Strengthens the Tenant Movement in New York City (March 2022).

  101. James Teufel et al., Del. Combined Campaign for Justice, Social Return on Investment from Legal Aid Services: A Statewide Analysis (March 6, 2018). [Delaware]

  102. Univ. of Mich. Poverty Solutions, Michigan Evictions: Trends, Data Sources, and Neighborhood Determinants (May 2020).

  103. Univ. of N.C. at Charlotte Urban Inst., Charlotte-Mecklenburg Evictions, Part 3: One-month snapshot of eviction court records (2018).

  104. Univ. of Tusla Coll. of Law, Advancing Housing Justice in Tulsa (June 8, 2020).

  105. Vitalyst Health Found., Spark Report: Building Health Communities: Tenants Eviction Assistance Project and Maintaining Stable Housing (June 2021) [Phoenix, AZ].

  106. City of Boston Mayor Martin J. Walsh, Eviction Prevention Taskforce, An Action Plan to Reduce Evictions in Boston (Dec. 2019).

  107. Alex Werth, East Bay All. for a Sustainable Econ., Unrepresented: A Report on Eviction Court Watch in Contra Costa County (Dec. 2022). [California]

  108. William E. Morris Inst. for Justice, Injustice in No Time: The Experience of Tenants in Maricopa County Justice Courts (June 2005). [Arizona]

  109. Linda Wood-Boyle and Kelly Mulligan, An Ounce of Cure: Preventing Homelessness by Intervening in Forced Evictions from Subsidized Housing (2013) (on file with the NCCRC).

  110. Ellen Yaroshefsky and Marilyn J. Flood, Forward to the Conference Report: The New York City Housing Court in the 21st Century: Can it Better Address the Problems Before It?, 3 Cardozo Pub. L. Pol'y & Ethics J. 591 (2005).